Coconut activated charcoal
Bambusa arundinacea stem extract
Cocos nucifera fruit extract
Coconut fruit extract is a clear or pale yellow liquid derived from the fruit of the coconut tree (Cocos nucifera). Coconut is a tree in the palm (Arecaceae) family, found in moist, tropical climates. Trees grow up to 30 meters tall, with large feather-like leaves and smooth trunks. Coconuts are commonly grown in tropical countries, and are particularly suited to small-scale production where they can be combined with other crops such as cassava, yams, sweet potatoes, bananas and pineapples. The fruit or ‘drupe’ of the tree is notable for its heavy protection (a thick, fibrous husk followed by a hard shell), high water content and oil-rich flesh. The husk, shell, flesh, oil and milk of the coconut all have useful applications and a rich history of use for oral cosmetics. Coconut fruit extract is produced by soaking the fruit in solvents such as water, glycerin or safflower oil, which draw out the extract.
Ceratonia siliqua fruit extract
The origins of Ceratonia siliqua (carob) use go back some 4000 years, to when the ancient Greeks began cultivating it in Italy and Greece from its native Eastern Mediterranean (likely Arabic) roots. The carob tree, or ceratonia siliqua, is technically a legume of the pea family, and produces pea-like pods, which contain pulp and the seeds from which carob is made. Carob today is grown as far and wide as Australia, South Africa, India, and North and South America. Carob also supplies phosphorus and vitamin D, and together with it being a rich source of calcium, helps it support healthy bones and teeth, as well guarding against osteoporosis.
Salvadora persica stem powder
Salvadora persica is a small tree or shrub with a crooked trunk, typically 6–7 metres (20–23 ft) in height. Its bark is scabrous and cracked, whitish with pendulous extremities. The root bark of the tree is similar in colour to sand, and the inner surfaces are an even lighter shade of brown. It has a pleasant fragrance, as well as a warm and pungent taste. The tree produces small red edible fruits in clusters. Salvadora persica or the toothbrush tree is a small evergreen tree native to the Middle east, Africa and India. Its sticks are traditionally used as a natural toothbrush called miswak and are mentioned by the World Health Organization for oral hygiene use. (source: World Health Organization. Prevention of oral diseases. WHO offset publication No. 103. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1987. p. 61.)